The Legatum Prosperity Index

Legatum Institute

The Prosperity Index aims to help identify specifics action to be taken to contribute to strengthening the pathways from poverty to prosperity across 167 countries, as well as providing a roadmap as nations chart their way through and out of the pandemic.

2023 edition: Read it here.

2021 edition: Read it here.

2020 edition: Read it here.

루쓰 싸피로 CAPS 공동의장, “기후 변화는 국경을 모른다”

The Industry Journal

루쓰 싸피로(Ruth Shapiro) CAPS(아시아자선사회센터) 공동의장이 서울 대한상공회의소에서 3일 열린 ‘2023 탄소중립과 에너지정책 국제세미나’(이하 세미나)에서 축사를 진행했다. More here.

탄소중립 혁신 솔루션 찾아라… 대한상의 100대 정책과제 제안

Metro Seoul

[메트로신문] 대한상의가 탄소중립을 위해 세미나를 개최하고 100대 정책 과제를 담은 전략 보고서를 발표했다. 대한상공회의소는 3일’Innovation Solutions for Net Zero’를 주제로 ‘제5회 탄소중립과 에너지정책 국제세미나’를 개최했다. More here.

Dr. Jemilah Mahmood (Malaysia)
Executive Director
Sunway Centre for Planetary Health

Published date: 14 March 2023

Professor Tan Sri Dr. Jemilah Mahmood is the Executive Director of Sunway Centre for Planetary Health, hosted at Sunway University, Malaysia. Established in 2021, the Centre focuses on the climate emergency, creating healthy cities and achieving sustainable food systems, recognizing the centrality of good governance, effective communications and an education revolution to effect long-term system level changes to the relationship between planet and people. It forms part of Sunway Group’s focus on achieving sustainable development in Malaysia and fostering regional cooperation for environmental action.

CAPS spoke to Dr. Jemilah in late 2022 to learn more about planetary health – the intersection of human health, planetary health and sustainable resilience – and the role of private social investment in addressing existential crises in the Asian region.

CAPS: Dr. Jemilah, thank you for taking the time to speak with us. Could you start by explaining the relationship between the health of people and the health of the environment?

Dr. Jemilah Mahmood: It’s abundantly clear by the events of the last three years that the health of humanity is intrinsically linked to the health of the planet. There are limits to the amount of stress the planet can take before we start to experience systemic collapse, until those tipping points that science is telling us to be worried about are reached. When we start transgressing those boundaries there is a massively negative impact on the systems that are important for humanity: health, food, water, energy. This damage in turn impacts on our economic well-being, our social cohesion, gender relations, equality, education, everything. One event can generate cascading crises, as we saw during the pandemic when we experienced this up close and personal. There are so many things that are affected when health is not protected.

CAPS: That sounds incredibly complex.

Dr. Jemilah Mahmood: It’s complex because, when it comes down to it, everything in nature is connected. The disconnection is with us – we are not connected anymore. This is because our political, economic and social systems have evolved in ways which are simply not sustainable, not respecting the limits of the Earth’s ability to provide for us, to clean up our messes, to process our trash and the toxins we create, to protect us from poorly thought through development choices. And it’s starting to more immediately touch upon a lot of sensitivities. For example, in Malaysia, the massive flooding in late 2021, generated a huge tension in politics. People felt that the government wasn’t taking care of them. People didn’t talk about climate change until it impacted them, until the triple crisis of the pandemic, the floods and then economic recession became very personal.

There is no escaping the fact that human beings drive environmental and planetary destruction, whether through their own consumer behaviors, though silent acquiescence to damage caused by big businesses and corrupt politicians or simply through participating and accepting the poorly thought through development decisions our leaders and private sector managers make – decisions that don’t take into account planetary boundaries or respect for nature. So, we are trying to get people to flip it and see things from a different perspective.

CAPS: How easy or difficult has it been for you to get people to shift that mindset?

Dr. Jemilah Mahmood: Every crisis provides opportunities. In the immediate aftermath of disasters it’s easier for us to talk to governments, to say, “Here’s the situation, you need to act.” The pandemic provided a significant opportunity to open dialogue on the need for more sustainable change and better risk management. The government has included planetary health and climate change in its development plans. The caretaker Prime Minister at the time called for a planetary health roadmap. We have a sustainability centre, bringing the SDGs into our development planning, and we’re setting up a sustainability fund so that we can look at what innovations can happen at the community level to drive sustainable transformation. It is still tricky, but it is not impossible.

I think that everyone needs to use this opportunity, making sure we don’t forget that the pandemic showed us the need for speed, to keep driving forward the transformational change that must happen now, especially because governments and people have so many competing priorities. For the normal person on the street, it is about, “How do I bring food to the table?”, and for politicians, it’s about, “How do I survive?”. For businesses, “How do I make money?”. Doing business well and right means good business outcomes. For governments, making the right policy decisions will ensure better political survival and thriving. But the ultimate driver of positive change needs to be us – the people. Changes in our behaviors will be reflected in changes in our institutions which will generate change in our interactions with the Earth.

CAPS: We often hear people say that sustainability and climate change seem too big and too complicated, and it’s difficult to know where to start. How would you respond to that concern?

Dr. Jemilah Mahmood: There’s no short-term or easy solution to this. This is going to be hard work for a long time to come – but we’re running out of time to get started. In my opinion, the most important thing is education. How do we build an awareness of the importance of the environment, of sustainability, of planetary health? It needs to start from a very young age, in schools.

At the University, we prioritized incorporating planetary health as a central theme, no matter what discipline you are in. We are piloting a course now, that will become mandatory from 2024. Every student entering Sunway University will need to complete a seven-week course on planetary health and community service before they graduate. In the process of educating people, you create greater awareness and develop leadership skills.

We also run a lot of youth engagement activities. I think that’s a factor in how we change things in the long term, through young people. They already know this is important. They know that their generation is facing an existential crisis. We give them the tools and the skills so that they are better able to handle it, but also build that transformative innovation that is required to develop solutions for us all.

CAPS: What role can philanthropists play in supporting businesses and communities to take action on planetary health? 

Dr. Jemilah Mahmood: I think philanthropy would do well to increase its focus on impact. That’s where the real value for money lies. But a lot of the time, philanthropy is not strategic. For example, when there’s a crisis, everybody pours money into relief, but funders are less willing to provide money that helps to prevent these crises from happening in the first place. I want to see philanthropists think about strategy and impact, more intelligent theories of change, and long-term progress.

Philanthropy also has such an important role to play in building institutions. I would love for our Centre to have endowments to help us do research and build the evidence to change society through education and influencing policies. We also want to influence businesses, including SMEs, to look at how they can innovate and to help them become more aware of their environmental impact. We have to get people to see that protecting the environment is good business and good FOR business.

Iris Liu (Taiwan)
Vice President
Taiwan Mobile

Published date: 23 August 2022

Iris Liu is the Vice President at Taiwan Mobile (TWM), the second largest telecom company in Taiwan. She joined in 2014, the year that Taiwan Mobile formed its Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) steering committee. Iris oversees sustainability, brand management, public relations, as well as the TWM Foundation. This allows her to create synergies within the company and develop multiple-win projects. Taiwan Mobile has become a pioneer of sustainability and innovation in Taiwan’s telecom sector, not only reducing environmental impact but also actively creating shared value. CAPS spoke to Iris Liu in January 2022 to understand Taiwan Mobile’s journey towards sustainability.


CAPS: Thank you, Iris, for sitting down with us. You started with Taiwan Mobile at the beginning of their sustainability journey. Can you share an important learning from the past eight years with the company?  

Iris: Without a doubt, it is the importance of leaving no one behind in our Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) planning. Everyone in the company must be on the same page and recognize the same goal. We really struggled in the first two years because people didn’t know what they should do. It took many workshops to communicate with our employees and the steering committee, as well as our executives. This process helped us to get everyone on the same page.  


CAPS: How has Taiwan Mobile crafted its ESG strategy and goals? 

Iris: We update our strategy annually through a collaborative process with employees. Every year, we hold key workshops where around 200 executives gather to learn about the company’s ESG focus. This year the focus of the workshop is on Net Zero planning for 2050. We examine 52 KPIs for sustainability across the company and ask ourselves whether these are achievable and ambitious enough. Then at the end of the year, we review our progress and each business unit is assessed on its ESG performance. For instance, one of the KPIs I set for my team was to complete 50 hours of training, which they surpassed.  

TWM also asked employees to “imagine the year 2030” when creating long-term goals, which helped shape the direction of our ESG strategy. TWM aims to reduce its footprint and be a responsible business. Overall, we emphasized staff working together to reach goals, and routinely updated them to respond to the changing world. Along the way, we offer many educational classes, movies related to ESG, and training support for our employees to integrate sustainability into their thinking and work. 


CAPS: Who provides these workshops and classes? And when your team needs support, who can you turn to? 

Iris: Since sustainability is integrated into our employees’ daily work and responsibilities, a lot of the classes are delivered internally by Human Resources. We also offer online training. In fact, during Covid-19, this option made it easier for our employees to participate because they could choose their preferred time and select what they wanted to learn. We also have an external consultant, KPMG, and we consider their advice when creating projects. And, luckily, our team always has strong support from other business units like Technical Group, Information and Technology Group, Customer Business Group etc. that give us all the resources we needed in every different projects. Most important and strongest support is from our president, our chairman, and the Board.  


CAPS: Can you tell us about some of the projects that you’ve been doing as a result of this work? 

Iris: Yes, for example Solar for Good. Sunnyfounder, a social enterprise, helps people develop solar energy projects in Taiwan. Sunnyfounder identifies non-profit organizations (NPOs) with available rooftop space where solar panels can be built. Sunnyfounder then attracts investments to build the infrastructure, and the energy generated by the solar panels can either be used by the NPO or sold to generate income

When I heard about this project I was immediately excited as we had a previous campaign where NT$2 from the sale of any device through Taiwan Mobile’s channels went towards developing green power and I wanted to create greater synergy by merging the two concepts. We could use the technical knowledge from Sunnyfounder to build solar panels on NPOs’ rooftops. TWM would donate one million NTD on each project and help raise money to support more NPOs to install solar panels. We named this project as “Solar for Good”.  

We started “Solar for Good” since 2017, help 5 NPOs raised over NTD 24 million to build up the solar energy systems and generate over 1.4m kWh of green electricity, with more than NTD 8 million revenue accumulated till now for those five NPOs. In 20 years, the estimated total revenue for those five NPOs will be around NTD 63.21 million and approximately 9.36 million kWh of green electricity will be generated, equivalent to carbon reduction of 4907 tons of CO2e. That means that we guarantee a 20-years stable income for those NPOs and also benefit our planet with more clean energy at the same time.  


CAPS: You’re creating a win-win-win for the NPOs, the community, and the environment. That is wonderful.  

Iris: Thank you. For us, the win-win-win is very important. Not only are we helping to boost renewable energy, we are also helping NPOs. We also saw invisible benefits. The solar panels on the rooftops lowered the temperature of the whole building by 3-4 degrees, and so the energy consumed by the NPOs was also reduced.  


CAPS: We also heard about your fiber optics project, can you tell us a bit more about that?  

Iris: Three years ago we started the Circular Economy Forum. At the time, our performance on circular economy and waste management was not good enough, so we wanted to force ourselves to be better. We co-worked with KPMG and host the first forum, made a declaration with our suppliers that we would become more circular. In the second year, we consulted with our technical group to see what kind of waste we were producing and try to figure out the item that we can start our efforts with. They noted that we produced a lot of waste fiber optic cables (FOC) and identified a company, Miniwiz, researching to reduce waste. We now work with Miniwiz as well as Chang Gung University to identify how fiber optic waste cables can be turned into new products.  

In a follow-up interview with Arthur Huang, CEO of Miniwiz, in February 2022, CAPS learned that as a result of this project collaboration, Miniwiz developed the technology to take FOC waste and turn it into brick and rebar substitutes. Instead of sourcing steel for construction projects, for example, a builder might source FOC “rebar” instead, which is stronger and more water-resistant than steel. 


CAPS: What has been the most rewarding part of being part of TWM’s sustainability journey? 

Iris: The change in people. In our steering committee, I can see that each executive is really trying to learn more about sustainability: recognizing the issue of climate change, methods used to reduce carbon emissions, and so on. But this change was not limited to the executive team, the employees also changed. In less than 3 years we have seen employees really becoming interested in integrating ESG in their work. So, I would say the biggest achievement is that we set our goals and did it together.  

Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific


This report assesses the investment needed for the Asia Pacific region to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. It argues that stable economic growth in recent years has come at the cost of heightened inequality and environmental degradation. Prioritizing GDP growth at all costs is no longer feasible nor desirable. An estimated US$1.5 trillion is needed per year for the region to meet the SDG 2030 target. The report charts the course to achieving this, highlighting the economic policies that can support structural transformations, necessary investments into human capital and the environment, and the regional and cross-sector collaborations that should be maximized.

2022 edition: Economic policies for an inclusive recovery and development
This 75th-anniversary issue of the Survey argues that Asia-Pacific economies must prioritize inclusive growth – whereby citizens of all socio-economic groups are able to improve their livelihoods, incomes, health, and education levels. Given the constrained fiscal space and other challenges posed by the pandemic, it is difficult but very much possible. Read it here.

2021 edition: Towards post-COVID-19 resilient economies

2020 edition: Towards sustainable economies

2019 edition: Ambitions beyond growth

Wang Shi 王石 (China)
Founder and Honorary Chairman 创始人、董事会名誉主席
China Vanke Co., Ltd. 万科集团
China 中国

Published date: 4 April 2022


Wang Shi is a respected leader and entrepreneur in business and environmental philanthropy. He is the Founder and Honorary Chairman of China Vanke Co., Ltd., one of the world’s largest real estate developers, and a Fortune 500 company. After retiring, he devoted himself to Vanke Foundation’s environmental philanthropy work. Ronnie C. Chan, Co-Founder and Chair of the Centre for Asian Philanthropy and Society (CAPS), had a conversation with Wang Shi in December 2021 to understand his work in environmental philanthropy and his recommendations for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) working to create a sustainable world.


Hello, Wang Shi. You are one of the most representative Chinese entrepreneurs in environmental protection, and I am glad to have you here to share your experience with us. How did you become interested in the environment, could you share the story behind it?


Chinese people have an intimate connection with nature, and I am no exception. Part of me was influenced by my father. He came from the countryside and was very fond of nature. The hallway in our home was filled with plants and flowers, and as a child, I saw different kinds of plants every morning when I woke up. Besides, I’ve always enjoyed outdoor activities such as hiking and climbing. All of these experiences have led me to have a fondness for nature. The turning point was in 2002 when I climbed Mount Kilimanjaro (the highest peak in Africa). I read about this mountain in a Hemingway novel. The high-altitude, snow-capped mountains are supposed to be covered in snow all-year-round, but unexpectedly, I found that there was no snow when I climbed to the top. Another time when I was in Antarctica, I stood shirtless at the pole for 20 minutes, and was again surprised that it wasn’t as cold as I thought it would be.

之后,我开始了解到这些现象背后的原因,譬如说气候变暖、中国碳排量、森林过度砍伐等严峻的环境问题。我从那时就开始思考:这些和我有什么关系,和中国有什么关系,和中国企业家什么关系?2004年,我和其他100位企业家发起了阿拉善SEE, 这是中国最大的,由企业家组成的民间环保组织。

Afterwards, I began to learn about the reasons behind these phenomena, such as global warming, China’s carbon emissions, deforestation, and other serious environmental issues. It was then that I started to think, “what does all of this have to do with me, with China, and with Chinese entrepreneurs?” In 2004, I and a hundred other entrepreneurs launched the Alashan SEE Ecological Association, the largest private environmental organization formed by entrepreneurs in China.


What role do you think Chinese companies can play in the field of environmental protection? 

王石:两个方面,一个是你企业本身产品要符合绿色、环保的标准。企业要自律,这是底线。而且就现在的大环境来看,仅守住底线是不够的,还需要主动积极的做绿色转型。另一方面, 在中国,推动社会往前发展有三种力量:政府、企业和公益组织。其中,我认为企业应该扮演比较重要的角色,因为企业是营利者,应发挥财富创造者的价值;同时,企业也有更强的组织动员能力,去支持公益组织发展。

There are two aspects for corporates to consider: First of all, your business products must meet environmental standards. Enterprises should be self-disciplined, and that is the bottom line. In fact, in the current environment, just meeting the bottom line is not enough. You need to take the initiative to actively pursue green transformation. Secondly, corporates should play a greater role in the public sector. In China, there are three forces driving society forward: the government, enterprises, and NGOs. Among these, I think enterprises should play a more important role because they are profit makers and should emulate the values of wealth creators. At the same time, enterprises also have a stronger ability to mobilize organizations and support the development of NGOs.


You’re probably referring to the larger companies’ roles, but what about the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? How can they participate?

王石:那可能更多的是如何借助现在公益组织、各个行业、各界社会力量建立起的关系来带动绿色发展。比如说,中国纺织协会也没有太多大企业,大概有23万家。虽然纺织业涉及很多污染源,但这个行业在环境保护方面做得非常好,原因有二:第一,国际品牌的倒逼。很多中国企业都是生产、代工、挂牌,而大部分国际品牌都有很强的环保意识和要求,如果不符合用工要求不会下单,这就是国际品牌的倒逼;第二,这个行业设立了“企业公民办公室”, 大大地推动了行业往这个方向发展,形成了行业主轴。

Perhaps it is more about how to use NGOs to establish relationships with various industries and societies to drive green development. For example, the China Textile Association does not have too many large enterprises as members, but rather they have about 230,000 SMEs. Although the textile industry is one of the main contributors to pollution, it is doing very well in environmental protection for two reasons. First is the pressure from the international community. Many Chinese companies are suppliers to international brands, and most of them have a strong awareness of environmental protection and requirements. If the requirements are not met, they will simply not place any orders. Secondly, the textile industry is one of the first to set up a “corporate citizenship office,” which greatly propelled the industry to move in a green direction and now the concept of pursuing green development is aligned among corporates in the textile industry.

再譬如说我所在的房地产行业的发展, 我们采购许多如钢材、水泥、木材等涉及碳排的物料。所以我们现正实践绿色供应链的概念,并联合第三方认证机构,确保我们所采购的木材是符合环保标准的。如果从未来发展来说,中国企业一定要走出去,包括业务、投资和生态环保的经验输出,要与国际组织、跨国企业联手合作。毕竟中国企业不少累积的经验都是在中国大陆上,或”一带一路”上。所以,我们应该与国际组织和跨国企业合作, 不仅联手做生意,也可以联手做生态保护,对中国企业和公益组织来说都是非常有帮助的。

Another example is the real estate industry that I am in. As you may know, we purchase a lot of carbon emitting materials, such as steel, cement, wood and so on. We are now implementing a green supply chain concept and have found a third party to certify that the wood we purchase complies with environmental requirements. If we look at our future development, Chinese companies must go abroad. This includes business, investment and eco-friendliness. We need to cooperate with international organizations and multinational companies. After all, a lot of experience of Chinese companies was accumulated in mainland China, or in the “Belt and Road Initiative” countries. Therefore, we should cooperate with international organizations and multinational companies, not only to do business but also for ecological protection, which would be very helpful for Chinese companies and local NGOs.


You mentioned your support for environmental philanthropy. What are the most worthwhile areas to invest resources in China at the moment?

王石:我觉得最值得投放的还是公民教育。我举个例:万科公益基金会的垃圾分类项目。我从2000年开始做,到今年已经20年了。这20年我的体会是:垃圾分类可以说很容易,也可以说很难。分辨可否回收,做到干湿垃圾分离,算是简单的部分;复杂的部分在于习惯。要改变这种浪费的习惯是很难的,尤其在社区层面,动员大家一起来改变习惯、观念,是需要很多投入的。我认为,环保问题无论是哪方面的投入,都要跟教育结合到一起,这是最重要的。虽然垃圾分类是个很小的点,但我用它打通了社区动员的模式,有了一定基础和经验后,再有什么新的诉求,比如我现在推动的碳中和社区,比起以前真的是事半功倍。所以在环保事务方面,教育仍是非常重要的, 另外教育亦是要由少年、儿童做起,效果是最好的。

I think the most worthwhile investment is civic education. Let me give you an example: Vanke Foundation’s waste management project. I have been involved since 2000. My experience in the past 20 years is that garbage sorting can be said to be both easy and difficult. The simple part is to distinguish whether it is recyclable and then to separable wet from dry garbage; the complicated part is to drive behavioral change. It is very difficult to change wasteful habits, especially at the community level, and it takes a lot of investment to mobilize people to change their habits and perceptions. I think it’s important to combine environmental issues with education, no matter where the investment is made. Although waste sorting is a very small area, I have used it to create a model to empower community mobilization. With a certain foundation and experience, any new initiatives, such as the carbon-neutral community that I am promoting now, would be much more effective than before. So, in environmental matters, education is still very important, and the best way is to start with children and teenagers.


In my observation, the Chinese government is quite progressive in many ways, including environmental protection. But it is not realistic to expect all ideas to come from the government. So, if entrepreneurs have thoughts, are the channels of communication with the government open?

王石:是的,而且在我看来企业家是有优势的:他们比较敏感, 看事物比较清晰, 能够第一时间把握到国际事物的变化。这样看来,他们应该走在政策前面,而不是等到政府说出来再看如何配合。比如说刘晓光发起的阿拉善SEE,当时就是找到影响着北京沙尘暴的源头, 找到不同企业家一起关注、行动, 当然也就得到了政府的认可。

Yes, and I think one of the advantages that entrepreneurs have is that they are more sensitive, have clearer perspectives, and can grasp the international trends or dynamics. So, it seems that they should be ahead of the policy, rather than waiting for the government to say something and then fit into it. Take Liu Xiaoguang as an example, when he started the Alashan SEE Ecological Association, and mobilized different entrepreneurs to act together to find the reasons for the sandstorms affecting Beijing. They found the root of the problem, and such efforts were recognized by the government.

Philanthropy with Chinese characteristics: through the lens of health

Alliance Magazine

While China has achieved momentous success in expanding its economy and generating wealth over the last decade, this has come at an environmental cost. Drawing upon the insights of CAPS’ latest China Issue Guide Series, our Chief Executive Ruth Shapiro and Research Manager Vincent Cheng share insights on the unique features of Chinese philanthropy and how it is addressing health needs in the country. Read it here.

China Issue Guide Series: Environmental Philanthropy

While China has achieved huge success in expanding its economy and generating wealth for its citizens, this achievement has come at an environmental cost. This report is the second in CAPS’ four-part series examining “philanthropy with Chinese characteristics.”

In this report, we look at individual and corporate giving to environmental issues through the lenses of themes and approaches. As our issue expert, Ma Jun, Director of the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs (IPA), contributed a chapter examining the current state of the environment in China, including key issues, policy responses, and overlooked areas.

The report also compiles 20 case studies across environmental themes that show the successful implementation of an environmental philanthropy strategy in China.

Our data comes from more than 5,600 Chinese foundations’ annual reports mined from publicly available government databases; interviews with 40 principals, management teams of foundations, social service organizations, and scholars; media resources including the Philanthropy Times were also utilized.



除此之外,本报告汇编了 20 个关于不同环境子议题领域的环保公益项目案例,展示了中国公益慈善在环境领域的探索成果与其可能发挥的重要价值。最后,我们对环保公益慈善事业的下步行动进行了总结与思考,希望能够为那些已经进入或想要探索这个领域的人提供一份行动建议,并能有所启发。

本研究的主要数据来自官方公开的数据库,共覆盖 5,600 多个中国基金会年度报告、40,000多个公益项目。同时,我们专访了40位基金会负责人、管理团队、社会服务机构及学者;也参考了大量中国公益行业媒体的报道。

China Issue Guide Series

In the past ten years, wealth in China has increased dramatically and with it, philanthropic giving. According to the China Philanthropy Times , philanthropic donations of ¥1 million (US$154,560) or more amounted ¥27.63 billion (US$4.11 billion,) in 2018, up 50% from 2017. Not surprisingly, this shift has generated much interest both in China and internationally.

There have been several landscape studies on Chinese philanthropy in the last few years. CAPS’ study takes a different tack in understanding Chinese philanthropy and provides useful information to those interested in giving. The China Issue Guides is a four-part series analyzing the top issue areas for Chinese philanthropists: health , environment , education , and poverty alleviation .

Each report delves into an issue area and provides:

  1. An overview of the state of the issue in China.  For instance, a landscape analysis of the issue and the key priorities of the Chinese government related to the issue area.
  2. Overview of philanthropic giving to the issue in China. What types of projects are being funded? Where are they? What trends can be seen in philanthropy?
  3. How aligned is philanthropy in this issue area with government objectives?  What are the gaps in terms of needs in this issue area?
  4. Recommendations  for philanthropy in this issue area going forward.

These reports not only discuss the state of play around philanthropy on a given topic but analyze the motivations and trends as well as chart a path forward based on social needs.

Reports are published in both English and Chinese.